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作  者:朱平平
類  別:人文科普
出  版:白象文化
出版日期:2013年2月
語  言:中英對照
I S B N :978-986-5890-47-6
裝  訂:平裝

定  價:NT$0

狀  態:未上架

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国际关系研究大多注重于政治学、社会学、经济学和法律。本书在对国际事务的分析中开启了哲学的和心理学的新视野。它以哲学的一般性和心理学的个性的综合来解释国际关系中的常见事例和复杂现象。
Researches in international relations have been focusing on politics, sociology, economics, and law. This book adds new perspectives of philosophy and psychology in the analysis of international affairs. It synthesizes philosophical generality and psychological individuality in order to interpret common cases and complicated phenomenon in international relations.

几百年来,西方的理论和术语支配着国际关系领域的研究和学术发表;学术探讨和争论主要是在现实主义和自由主义以及它们的理论分支之间进行。本书从国际关系的自然起源出发,对其进行一种理论的分析,并试图提出一种既不重复或辩护现存的理论、也不攻击任何其他理论的学说。本书所提出的理论是即非西方也非东方的、既不带成见也不带偏见的。很多概念和提法都是原创的和新颖的。本书将给一个由西方思想支配的学术领域带来一种非西方的新元素,从而激起一种双向的学术交流。
Due to the knowledge background, ways of thinking, and academic framework and tradition, scholars form different theories, look at the same issues from different perspectives, and provide various interpretations. In hundreds of years, western theories and terminologies have dominated researches and publications in the field of International Relations. Discussions and arguments have been mainly between realism and liberalism, and their derivatives. Japanese scholar Takashi Inoguchi raised the question of “why are there no non-western theories of international relations” in 2006. There are other non-western researchers in the field share the same wonders including myself. Based on the current situation in international relations, this book presents a theoretical analysis of international relations starting from its natural origins. It tries to develop a theory that does not defend or repeat existing theories, neither does it attack any other hypotheses. The theory raised in this book is non-western, non-eastern, non-stereotyped, and non-biased. Many concepts and arguments are original and innovative. The book will bring a refreshing non-western element in a western dominated academic circle, thus arouse a two-way academic exchange in the field.

   
 

我的事业在使用不同语言的三个国家发展:中国、美国和日本。语言成了着书立说、交流畅谈的障碍。当年去美国留学之前以为自己的英语水平在美国会提高地很快,不久就能用英语进行学术交流,可事实远非如此。感慨之下写了题为“跨文化背景下的学术适应”的博士论文,阐述了这一适应过程中的八大障碍:知识的相关性、非母语造诣、学术研究方法的传统、思维和理论框架、公共资源、教育技术的掌握、学术圈子和经济来源。在日本工作十年的时间里,忙于教学和研究,且系里的工作语言为英语,生活中则多可借助汉字行事,日语长进不大。汉语虽为母语,怎奈本人离开汉语学术圈子已太过久远,写起文章来不免有不够顺畅之处。此外,比语言更大的障碍是学术文章的规格、标准和要求等方面的差异。比如一篇用英文写的关于对外汉语教学的论文,文中参考了多位该专业资深中国学者的学术研究。审阅论文的英语教授对汉语教学及其学术动态并不十分了解,或者可以说一点也不了解,却非让论文的作者引证该教授书架上一本关于英语教学的英文专着。由于语言和学术规格的差异,障碍了学术观点的发表、交流和评判,影响了一代“半途出家”、跨文化学者特别是文科专业学者的学术发展,客观上也影响了学术公平的实现。
语言不应该成为交流的障碍,可这往往是难以避免的。学术评判规格的差异是难以避免的,但却可以逐步趋向多元和客观。本书以中英文两种语言撰写,其对象读者可占世界人口的三分之一以上。同时,接受两大语言和学术系统的评判,可增加评判的多元化和客观性。同时更希望读者能略过语言上的瑕疵和撰写中的不规范,理解作者所表达的理念和观点,并就此提出异议和探讨。此外,本书也可作为英汉双语读者的简易读本。
本书的第一章介绍了国际关系领域各种西方的和非西方的理论,并提出了该领域研究的重点、疑点和出发点以及本书的主题。国际关系的自然状态是理性的还是充满战争的?“安全”是国际关系的主题吗?强国能否阻止战争并促进无政府状态向理性状态的过渡?什么是国际关系的关键,国家利益还是国际平衡,超级大国还是国际民主?国际关系的起点应该是没有外来压力或导向的、理性的和个别的邻国之间的自然交往。第二章叙述了国际关系演化的三个阶段:国家之间自然的,利益的和必然的关系。这是对国际关系的一种哲学的思考。理性既是国际关系的起点,也是它的终点。国家利益取代自然理性,而自然理性的回归取决于国家利益和国家间必然关系的统一,国际利益因此而得以实现。
第三章主要是关于国际关系中的个体或实体。国家在国际关系中作为行为个体可以分为落势国,升势国,强势国和弱势国。一个国家所处的经济、政治、军事地位影响它对其他国家的态度和外交策略。第四章列出了四种双边或多边关系模式:发展模式、成熟模式、动荡模式和敌对模式。它们包括了当今世界最重要、最典型的国际关系模式。第五章介绍了一种分析领袖、强国和弱国在国际事务决策时心理导向的新视野。
第六章提出了关于建立新型国际关系的关键:民主、平等、自由、“家庭”观念以及权威和自主的统一。如果说一个民主国家以人为本,或者说是“人民的,人民做主的,为人民的”,那么,一个民主的国际社会就应该是以国为本,或者说是国家的,国家做主的,为国家的。正如“人民”这个概念包括一个国家的绝大多数人,“国”这个概念应该包括世界上的绝大多数国家。世界上所有国家对国际事务的充分介入要经历一个很长的过程和许多步骤,从对于决策的平等话语权到富国和穷国之间的互相关心,再到所有国家都享有绝对的自主。

二零一二年 于日本名古屋



Preface
My career development has been in three countries with different languages: China, the United States, and Japan. Language has been a barrier for me to write articles and books, to express opinions, or to exchange ideas in academic circles. Years ago before I went to the U.S., I thought that my English would be improved quickly as soon as I studied there, and that I could conduct academic exchange in English shortly. But the fact was far from it. Filled with deep thoughts, I wrote my dissertation on Intercultural Academic Adaptation, elaborating the eight barriers in the process of this adaptation: relativity of knowledge, level of non-native language, tradition of academic research methodology, framework of thinking and theory, public resource, mastery over educational technology, academic circles, and financial resources. I have been working in Japan since April 2003. However, my Japanese has progressed very slowly due to the facts of being busy with teaching and research, using English in the faculty and Chinese in classrooms, and enlisting the help of characters in daily life in Japan. Having been away from the academic circle in China for more than twenty years, my Chinese could be incompetent in writing academic articles. Apart from the language, even greater obstacles come from the diversities of specifications, standards, and requirements in research articles between different academic systems. For example, I wrote an article in English on Teaching Chinese as a Second Language, and consulted many related researches by senior scholars in the field. However, the reviewer was an English professor who has no knowledge of Chinese language or teaching Chinese, and insisted me to consult a book on English Teaching written in English from his bookshelf. The differences in languages and academic standards have hindered publication, exchange, and evaluation of academic viewpoints, as well as the academic development of those intercultural researchers, especially those of social sciences, who are also called “Midst of a Monk”. Meanwhile this situation has hindered the realization of academic fairness.
Language should not be the barrier of exchange, yet it is often difficult to avoid. The differences of standards in academic evaluation are unavoidable, however, it is possible for those standards to be gradually diversified and objective. Since the book is written in both Chinese and English, its targeting readers can amount more than one third of the world population. Meanwhile, with evaluations from two major languages and two academic systems, it adds the diversity and objectivity in evaluation. It is author’s hope that readers can slide over the blemishes of the language and non-standards in English writing of the book, understand the principles and ideas the author tries to express, and offer objections and discussions. In addition, the book can be a simple reader for Chinese-English bilingual readers.
In chapter one, the book presents major theories western and non-western in international relations. It raises uncertain, key, and starting points of researches in the field, and the theme of the book as well. Was the natural state of international relations rational or full of wars? Is “Security” the theme of international relations? Can powers stop wars and promote the transition from a state of anarchy to a rational condition? What are the key points of international relations, national interests or international balance, superpowers or international democracy? The starting point of international relations should be natural contacts between rational and individual neighbors without any external pressure or guidance. Chapter two recounts the evolution of international relations at three levels: natural, interest bearing, and inevitable relations between countries. It is a philosophical insight into international relations. Rationality is both the beginning and the end of international relations. National interests busted the natural rationality. And the return of natural rationality depends on the unification of national interests and inevitable relationships among nations, thus the realization of international interests.
Chapter three focuses on the individuals or entities in international relations. The behaviors of countries in international relations are analyzed according to the categories of declining, rising, strong, and weak ones. A country’s economic, political, and military positions affect its attitudes and strategies in dealing with other countries. Chapter four lists four types of bilateral or multilateral international relations such as developing, mature, unstable, and hostile models. They include the most important and typical international relations in modern world. Chapter five introduces a new perspective in analyzing the psychological guidance of leaders, strong, and weak countries in decision making while dealing with international affairs.
Chapter six raises the keys for establishing new patterns of international relations: democracy, equality, freedom, “family” value, and a balance between authority and autonomy. While a democratic country is people-based or people-oriented, or “of the people, by the people, for the people”, a democratic international society should be country-based or country-oriented, or of the country, by the country, for the country. As the concept of “people” includes the most majority of people in one country, the concept of “country” should include the most majority of countries in the world. The fully involvement of international affairs by all the countries in the world will take a long process and many steps from an equal right to express opinions in decision-making to caring each other between rich and poor countries, and to all countries with absolute autonomy.

Written in Nagoya, Japan 2012

   
 

無。

   
 

朱平平
1982年初毕业于上海师范大学历史系,留校任教期间获得国际关系硕士学位。1990年至1996年留学于美国康涅狄格大学,获得教育学硕士学位和博士学位。曾先后在中国和美国的大学和国际学校任教。2003年至今在日本名古屋商科大学担任教授一职。先后发表了20余篇论文,并出版了两本教科书:《汉语一本通》和《中国文化必修》。

 
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